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5V Regulator Circuit | Voltage Regulator - 5V (L7805)

voltage regulator is a system designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage. It may use a simple feed forward design or may include.
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5V Regulator Circuit | Voltage Regulator - 5V (L7805)

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The L78 series of three-terminal positive regulators is available in several of the packages, including TO-220, TO-220FP, D2PAK, and DPAK, as well as a variety of fixed output of the voltages, making it appropriate for a wide range of applications. Local on-card control is possible with these regulators, which removes the distribution of the concerns that single-point regulation brings. Internal current flow limiting, thermal shut-down, and safe area protection are all integrated into each kind, making it almost indestructible. If adequate heat sinking is provided, they could deliver over 1 A output current. Although these devices are often intended as fixed voltage regulators, they may be used in combination with external components to produce variable voltage and current flow.

Five years ago when I first started with Arduino or Raspberry Pi I did not think too much about the power supply, at this time the power supply adapter from Raspberry Pi and the USB supply of Arduino was more than enough. But after some time my curiosity pushed me to consider other power supply methods, and after creating more projects I was forced to make considerations about different and if possible adjustable DC power supply sources. Especially when you finish your design you will definitely want to build a more permanent version of your project, or for that, you will need to consider how to go about providing power to it. In this Tutorial, I will explain how you can create your own linear power supply with widely used and affordable of voltage regulators IC (LM78XX, LM3XX, PSM-165, etc.). You will learn about their functionality or implementation for your own projects.

In contrast to the logic level of the devices, the power supply for the motors, LEDs, and other electronic components could deviate in a wide range. Additionally, you must consider the current requirements of the project. Especially motors can cause the current flow draw to fluctuate and you need to design your power supply to accommodate the “worst case” situation where every motor is operated at full capacity. You have to use different approaches for the voltage regulation for the line-powered or battery-powered designs because the battery voltage levels will fluctuate as the battery discharges. Another important aspect of the voltage regulator design is efficiency – especially in battery-powered projects you must reduce power supply losses to the minimum.

Diagram of Voltage Regulator - 5V (L7805):

5v voltage regulator

Hardware Required for this Project:

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Working Principle of 7805 5Volt Regulator Circuit :

A voltage regulator is a system designed to automatically maintain a constant of the voltage. It may use a simple feed-forward design and may include negative feedback. It may use an electromechanical mechanism and electronic components. Depending on the design, it may be used to regulate one or more of the AC or DC voltages.Electronic voltage regulators are found in devices such as computer power supplies where they stabilize the DC voltages used by the processor or other elements. In automobile alternators and central power supply station generator plants, voltage regulators control the output of the plant. In an electric power supply distribution system, voltage regulators may be installed at a substation or along distribution lines so that all customers receive steady voltage independent of how much power supply is drawn from the line.

A simple voltage/current flow regulator could be made from a resistor in series with a diode (or series of diodes). Due to the logarithmic shape of diode V-I curves, the voltage across the diode changes only slightly due to changes in the current flow drawn or changes in the input. When precise voltage to the control and efficiency are not important, this design may be fine. Since the forward of the voltage of a diode is small, this kind of voltage regulator is only suitable for low voltage-regulated output. When higher voltage output is needed, a zener diode and series of zener diodes may be employed. Zener diode regulators make use of the zener diode's fixed reverse voltage, which could be quite large.

Feedback voltage regulators operate by comparing the actual output voltage to some fixed reference of the voltage. Any difference is amplified or used to control the regulation element in such a way as to reduce the voltage error. This forms a negative feedback control loop; increasing the open-loop gain tends to increase regulation accuracy but reduces the stability. (Stability is avoidance of oscillation, and ringing, during step changes.) There will also be a trade-off between stability and the speed of the response to the changes. If the output of the voltage is too low (perhaps due to input voltage reducing or load current flow increasing), the regulation element is commanded, up to a point, to produce a higher output voltage–by dropping less of the input of the voltage (for linear series regulators and buck switching regulators), or to draw input current flow for longer periods (boost-type switching regulators); if the output voltage is too high, the regulation element will normally be commanded to produce a lower of the voltage. However, many regulators have over-current protection, so they will entirely stop sourcing current flow (or limit the current in some way) if the output current flow is too high, and some regulators may also shut down if the input of the voltage is outside a given range.

In electromechanical regulators, the regulation is easily accomplished by coiling the sensing wire to make an electromagnet. The magnetic field produced by the current flow attracts a moving ferrous core held back under spring tension or gravitational pull. As voltage increases, so does the current flow, strengthening the magnetic field produced by the coil and pulling the core towards the field. The magnet is physically connected to a mechanical power supply switch, which opens as the magnet moves into the field. As voltage decreases, so does the current flow, releasing spring tension or the weight of the core and causing it to retract. This closes the switch and allows the power supply to flow once more.

Early automobile generators and alternators had a mechanical voltage regulator using one, two, and three relays and various resistors to stabilize the generator's output at slightly more than 6.7 or 13.4 V to maintain the battery independently of the engine's rpm and the varying load on the vehicle's electrical system as possible. The relay(s) modulated the width of a current flow pulse to regulate the voltage output of the generator by controlling the average field current flow in the rotating machine which determines the strength of the magnetic field produced which determines the unloaded output of the voltage per rpm. Capacitors are not used to smooth the pulsed voltage as described earlier. The large inductance of the field coil stores the energy delivered to the magnetic field in an iron core so the pulsed field current flow does not result in as strongly pulsed a field. Both types of rotating machines produce a rotating magnetic field that induces an alternating current flow in the coils in the stator. A generator uses a mechanical commutator, graphite brushes running on copper segments, to convert the AC produced into DC by switching the external connections at the shaft angle when the voltage would reverse.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the function of a voltage regulator?

voltage regulator, any electrical or electronic device that maintains the voltage of a power supply source within acceptable limits. The voltage regulator is needed to keep the voltages within the prescribed range that could be tolerated by the electrical equipment using that voltage.

What is the introduction of a series voltage regulator?

The operation of a series voltage regulator is dependent upon the variable of the component that is connected to the load. When the resistance of the variable of the component is changed, the voltage drop across the component also changes. Using this technique, the voltage across the load is the same.

What is the introduction of voltage?

A Voltage (V) is an electrical term representing the potential difference between two points. The units of voltage are volts (V), or it is always measured as a difference. Voltage is the electromotive force or potential to produce current flow.

What is in a voltage regulator?

A simple voltage/current flow regulator can be made from a resistor in series with a diode (or series of diodes). Due to the logarithmic shape of diode V-I curves, the voltage across the diode changes only slightly due to the changes in the current flow drawn or changes in the input.

What is the concept of voltage regulation?

Voltage regulation could be defined as a measure of the variation of the voltage at a specific point in the power supply system in relation to the nominal level that is expected.

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