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Auto Turn off Battery Charger | Battery Charger Circuit using SCR

battery charger by not charging different capacities or chemistries of batteries together. This can damage batteries over time.
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Auto Turn off Battery Charger | Battery Charger Circuit using SCR

battery charger - Electronic Project


A battery charger, recharger, or simply charger,[1][2] is a device that stores energy in a battery by running an electric current flow through it. The charging protocol (how much voltage or current flow how long, and what to do when charging is complete) depends on the size or type of the battery being charged. Some battery types have a high tolerance for overcharging (i.e., continued charging after the battery has been fully charged) or can be recharged by connection to a constant voltage source or a constant current flow, depending on the battery type. Simple chargers of this type must be manually disconnected at the end of the charge of the cycle. Other batteries of the types use a timer to cut off when charging should be complete. Other batteries of the types cannot withstand over-charging, becoming damaged (reduced capacity, reduced lifetime), overheating, and even exploding. The charger may have a temperature or voltage-sensing circuit diagram and a microprocessor controller to safely adjust the charging current flow and voltage, determine the state of charge, and cut off at the end of the charge. Chargers may elevate the output of the voltage proportionally with the current to compensate for the impedance in the wires.

Inductive battery chargers use electromagnetic induction to charge the batteries. A charging station sends electromagnetic energy through an inductive coupling to an electrical device that stores the energy in the batteries. This is achieved without the need for metal of the contacts between the charger and the battery. Inductive battery chargers are commonly used in electric toothbrushes and other devices used in bathrooms. Because there are no open electrical contacts there is no risk of electrocution. Nowadays it is being used to charge wireless phones.

Chargers for car batteries come in varying ratings. Chargers that are rated up to two amperes may be used to maintain the charge on parked vehicle batteries and for small batteries on garden tractors or similar equipment. A motorist may keep a charger rated a few amperes to ten or fifteen amperes for maintenance of automobile batteries or to recharge a vehicle battery that has accidentally discharged. Service stations or commercial garages will have a large charger to fully charge a battery in an hour and two; often these chargers can briefly source the hundreds of amperes required to crank an internal combustion engine starter.

Diagram of Battery Charger Circuit using SCR:

battery charger

Hardware Required for this Project:

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Working Principle of Mobile Battery Charger Circuit:

Batteries are an intrinsic part of our everyday lives. Whether it is a mobile phone, emergency light, car battery, inverter, or any other electric equipment, the use of batteries is widespread. They increase the convenience for users by enabling the portability of the devices. The performance of a battery depends on its use or how carefully they are charged. Therefore, it is crucial to invest in a good battery for the charger. A battery charger or recharger gives the battery the required power to continue operating by forcing an electric current to flow through it.

A battery works by converting its stored chemical energy into an electrical power supply. Once the electrolyte of the battery is used up when it needs to be recharged. A battery charger is a device that provides Direct Current flow (DC) to the battery to restore the used-up electrolyte. So ideally, when all the electrolytes of the battery are restored, its current flow supply should stop.

The whole charging process is a combination of charging, stabilizing (optimizing the charging rate), or terminating (knowing when to stop charging). Charge or discharge rates of the batteries are given as C-rate (Charge Rate). It is the measure of the rate at which the battery is charged and discharged with respect to its capacity (measured in Ah). For example, if a fully charged 4Ah battery is discharged at a four-ampere rate, then it will take an hour to get fully charged. Most modern gadgets like mobile phones, electric vehicles, or laptops use lithium-ion batteries, which last for a long time when they are frequently charged.

The charging would immediately stop once the battery is fully charged. However the standard chargers have no way of knowing when the charging has reached 100 percent, and they keep supplying power supply to the battery. This is the reason you see batteries heating up--it is a way to release the extra power supplied to them. Overcharging batteries could not only damage a battery but also reduce its life. There are various types of battery chargers available like trickle, time-based, simple, smart charger, pulse, motion-powered, solar, fast, and 3-stage chargers.

A charger is always manufactured for a specific battery based on the amount of current flow it will provide and the time it will take to fully charge the battery. This means that the charger of design to charge a particular battery may not be suitable for another battery. Manufacturers of gadgets recommend that the same brand of battery charger be purchased to charge the batteries. You could get the best from your battery charger by not charging different capacities and chemistries of batteries together. This could damage batteries over time.

Frequently Asked Questions

Why is a battery charger important?

Lead acid batteries need maintaining charging, to ensure the achievement of their expected life. It is a good investment. In the long term, it is cheaper to buy a charger than to replace the batteries. Vehicles are expected to be reliable and to start when needed.

Why is it called a battery charge?

The word battery comes from the French word batterie or old French batterie meaning "thrashing, assault, and beating." The French word originates from the Latin word battuere meaning "to beat." The English usage began in the 1530s with the definition of "action of battering," and in law, "the unlawful beating of another.

What is battery charger and power supply?

A battery charger is a type of DC power supply designed specifically for charging of the batteries. A typical DC power supply is not designed to reduce parasitic load, or doesn't provide multiple stages of charging, reverse battery connection protection, or temperature compensation for the charge of the voltage.

Are battery chargers the same?

No, not all battery chargers are the same. Battery chargers could vary significantly in terms of their charging speed, the type of battery they are designed to charge, their voltage and amperage output, and their features or capabilities.

How is a battery charger constructed?

The battery of the charger constructed here consists of the following: a transformer, a rectifier circuit, a switch, a relay, a filter circuit diagram, a voltage regulator, and a Zener diode.

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