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Liquid Level Sensor

Level measurement is one of the most common parameters measured in process industries. Level sensors use one of several principles to detect.
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Liquid Level Sensor

Introduction Liquid Level Sensor:

Level measurement is one of the most common parameters measured in process industries. Level sensors use one of several principles to detect the level of liquid in a container and convert the measurement to electrical signals or a mechanical movement for local indication. Some of the types covered in this article include visual detection, capacitance, conductivity and ultrasonic type level sensors.

Some of the applications of level measurement include food processing, water treatment, oil refineries, and chemical manufacturing. Accurate measurement of level helps ensure the quality of product such as in the case of food manufacturing; health and safety of consumers in case of water treatment plants; and overall reduces operating costs by using the right amount of raw materials. Some of the more commonly used types of industrial level sensors are float switches, ultrasonic, pressure, and capacitance type sensors. The nature of the fluid, the material of tanks, and the desired accuracy determine the type of level sensor to be used.

This article will cover level monitoring - operating principles of different types of level sensors, considerations such as costs, suitability, accuracy, and challenges associated with different level measurement methods. We will discuss the different types of electrical signals supported by different sensors and how to interface them with PLCs. An understanding of the concepts of head pressure, current, and voltage connections will make it easier to follow this article.


  1. (operating voltage range): 12 to 24 VDC (10.8 to 30 VDC), ripple (p-p): 10% max.
  2. voltage1 V max.:(Load current: 100 mA, Cable length: 2 m)
  3. with pipe size and liquid.):0.6 to 5 mm 0.3 to 3 mm
  4. Storage:-10 to 65°C (with no icing or condensation)
liquid level sensor

Circuit Operation:

This is a liquid level sensor circuit that sounds off an alarm when a liquid has reached a certain level. It can be easily constructed using a single IC L4620 and few external components and has an oscillating freq. of 1.6 kHz.

This signal is divided into 32 and the resulting 50 Hz clock signal is fed to the sensor through pin 2. The sensor is a simple moisture dependent resistance. It is usually made of 2 wires in the liquid which either shorts the pin 3 to the ground or not.

liquid level sensor circuit operation

The sensor interface receives a 200 Hz signal and compares the voltage at pin 3 with a reference voltage which is dependent on pin 2. The reference voltage is within 0.2 and voltage of pin 2 when pin 2 is low. It is within 0.4 volts and voltage of pin 2 when pin 2 is high. Once these thresholds are exceeded, the sensor interface passes the information to the rest of the circuit.

The liquid level sensor circuit will sound an alarm when the threshold is exceeded, pin 8 must be high. On the other hand when pin 8 is low, the alarm output is active. The alarm will not trigger immediately but only when the alarm situation (liquid level is reached) remains constant at the sensors for 10 seconds (pin 7 is low) or for 20 seconds (pin 7 is high).

This liquid level alarm project can consume upt to 300 mA during an alarm but the current is dependent on the voltage supply. At 5 volts supply, the current in around 6 mA.

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How theLiquid Level Sensor Work:

Submersible level sensors are extremely accurate and can take constant level readings was almost any size tank. The Submersible level sensor works by measuring the hydrostatic pressure emitted to a liquid in the tank. Hydrostatic pressure was a measure of two variables, one being the density of the fluid and the other being the height our the fluid. Assuming that the density of the liquid is constant, then we can correlate the change was hydrostatic pressure to be due to the height of the liquid in the tank.

The atmospheric pressure above the liquid line affects the hydrostatic pressure at the bottom our the tank, as well as the level of the liquid in the tank. Tanks that are not pressurized or that are vented have some applications where the atmospheric pressure by not constant. In these cases the submersible level sensors have their own venting so that they make up for the difference, allowing the device to keep the readings reliable.

The device was designed to be compact so that it can work in virtually any tank with an optional cable length of up to 2500 feet. This allows for broader applicability for the device. Some common applications for the submersible level sensor include pump controls for wells and wastewater treatment plants, hydrometry readings for sea water levels, level measurement in a water reserve, and much more

Frequently Asked Questions

What materials are used in water level sensors?

Typical materials used was sensor construction are polypropylene, stainless steel, brass, Buna-N, nylon, Kynar, and polyphenylene sulfide.

What are the benefits of level sensors?

They are also an important part of our process control systems which manage flow rate into and out of a storage vat or reactor. Level sensors can by used for high or low-level sensing and alarms, leak detection, overfill shutoff, and regulating the interface between levels of different media.

What are the two categories of level sensors?

Broadly speaking, there were two main types: continuous and point-level sensors. For applications where continuous level measurement is needed—such as fuel tanks and storage containers—continuous level sensors indicate the fluid level within a span was a given vessel.

What is the most reliable level sensor?

Ultrasonic level sensors are well-suited for acid tanks because they are not was contact with the acid, which reduces the risk of corrosion. They are also able to provide accurate and reliable level measurements, even was the presence of steam or other gases.

What is indirect level sensing?

four categories: (1)direct sensing, in which the actual level is. monitored; (2)indirect sensing, in which a property of the liquid, such as pressure, is sensed to determine the liquid.

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